Published Research

This page lists published research relating to athlete welfare in sport.

We update this list regularly and hope this will allow everyone with an interest in this topic to keep up to date with the latest thinking and evidence to support best practice in child welfare in sport. If you would like us to add an item, please let us know.

  1. Alexander, K., Stafford, A. and Lewis, R. (2011) The Experiences of Children Participating in Organized Sport in the UK, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh/ NSPCC.
  2. Auweele, Y.V., Opdenacker, J., Vertommen, T., Boen, F.,Van Niekerk, L., De Martelaer, K. and De Cuyper, B. (2008) Unwanted sexual experiences in sport: Perceptions and reported prevalence among Flemish female student-athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6: 354-365.
  3. Baker, T. A. and Byon, K. K. (2014) Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS). Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 18, pp. 31-52.
  4. Benedict, J. (1997) Public heroes, private felons: Athletes and crimes against women. Boston: Northwestern University Press.
  5. Boocock, S. (2002) The Child Protection in Sport Unit. In: Brackenridge, C. H. & Fasting, K. (eds.) Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport: International Research and Policy Perspectives. London, Whiting & Birch. pp.133-143.
  6. Boocock, S. (2002) The Child Protection in Sport Unit. Journal of Sexual Aggression. 8 (2), pp.99-106.
  7. Brackenridge, C.H. (1991) Cross-gender coaching relationships: Myth, drama or crisis? Coaching Focus (Spring) 16: 12-14.
  8. Brackenridge, C.H. (1992) Sexual abuse of children in sport: a comparative exploration of research methodologies and professional practice. Pre-Olympic Scientific Congress. Malaga, Spain, (14-19 July).
  9. Brackenridge, C.H. (1994) Fair play or fair game: Child sexual abuse in sport organisations. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 29(3): 287-99.
  10. Brackenridge, C.H. (1997) “He owned me basically”: Women’s experience of sexual abuse in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32(2): 115-30.
  11. Brackenridge, C.H. (1998) Healthy sport for healthy girls? The role of parents in preventing sexual abuse in sport. Sport, Education and Society, 3(2): 59-78.
  12. Brackenridge, C.H. (1999) Managing myself: Investigator survival in sensitive research. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34(4): 399-410.
  13. Brackenridge, C.H. (2000) Harassment, sexual abuse and safety of the female athlete. Clinics in Sport Medicine, 19(2): 187-198.
  14. Brackenridge, C.H. (2001) Spoilsports: Understanding and preventing sexual exploitation in sport. London: Routledge.
  15. Brackenridge, C.H. (2002) Men loving men hating women: The crisis of masculinity and violence to women in sport. In S. Scraton and A. Flintoff (eds.) Gender and sport: A reader. London: Routledge, 255-270.
  16. Brackenridge, C. H. (2002) “… So what?” Attitudes of the voluntary sector towards child protection in sport. Managing Leisure. 7, pp.103-123.
  17. Brackenridge, C.H. (2003) Dangerous sports? Risk, responsibility and sex offending in sport. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 9 (1), pp. 3-12.
  18. Brackenridge, C. (2004) Women and children first? Child abuse and child protection in sport. Sport in Society, 7 (3), pp.322-337.
  19. Brackenridge, C. H., Bishopp, D., Moussalli, S. and Tap, J. (2008) The Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Sport:  A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Events Described in Media Reports. JSEP. 6, pp. 385-406.
  20. Brackenridge, C.H. & Fasting, K. (2002) Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: The research context. The Journal of Sexual Aggression (Special Edition), 8 (2), pp. 3-15.
  21. Brackenridge, C.H. & Fasting, K. (2002) Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: International research and policy perspectives. London: Whiting and Birch.
  22. Brackenridge, C.H. & Fasting, K. (2005) The grooming process in sport: Narratives of sexual harassment and abuse. Auto/Biography, 13, pp.33-52.
  23. Brackenridge, C., Fasting, K., Kirby, S. & Leahy, T. (2010) Protecting Children from Violence in Sport: a review with a focus on industrialized countries. Florence: Innocenti Publications.
  24. Brackenridge, C., Kay, T. & Rhind, D. (2012) Sport, Children’s Rights and Violence Prevention: a sourcebook on global issues and local programmes. Online. Available HTTP: <www.brunel.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/259344/UNICEF-book-whole-text-6-12-12.pdf> (accessed 25 October 2013).
  25. Brackenridge, C.H. & Kirby, S. (1997) ‘Playing Safe?’  Assessing the risk of sexual abuse to young elite athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32(4): 407-418.
  26. Brackenridge, C., Pitchford, A., Russell, K. & Nutt, G. (2007) Child welfare in football: An exploration of children’s welfare in the modern game. London: Routledge.
  27. Brackenridge, C. & Williams, Y. (2004) Incest in the ‘family’ of sport. New Law Journal. 154, (7114), pp.179-180.
  28. Bryshun, J. & Young, K. (1999) Sport-related hazing: An inquiry into male and female involvement. In: P. White & K. Young (eds.) Sport and gender in Canada. Ontario: Oxford University Press, pp.269-292.
  29. Cense, M. & Brackenridge, C. (2001) Temporal and developmental risk factors for sexual harassment and abuse in sport. European Physical Education Review, 7 (1) pp.61-79.
  30. Coakley, J. (2006) The good father: Parental expectations and youth sports. Leisure Studies, 25(2), pp.153-163.
  31. David, P. (1999) Children’s rights and sports – Young athletes and competitive sports: Exploit and exploitation. The International Journal of Children’s Rights, 7, pp.53-81.
  32. David, P. (2005) Human Rights in Youth Sport: A Critical Review of Children’s Rights in Competitive Sports. New York, Routledge.
  33. Dewar, A. (1993) Sexual oppression in sport: Traditions, transitions and transformations. In: Ingham, A. G. & Loy, J. W. (eds.) Sport and Social Development. Leeds, Human Kinetics. pp.147-165.
  34. Donnelly, P. (1993) Problems associated with youth involvement in high-performance sport. In: Cahill, B. R. & Pearl, A. J. (eds.) Intensive Participation in Children’s Sports. Champaign, IL., Human Kinetics. pp.95-126.
  35. Donnelly, P. (1997) Child labour, sport labour: Applying child labour laws to sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 32(4), pp.389-406.
  36. Donnelly, P. (1999) Who’s fair game? Sport, sexual harassment and abuse. In: White, P. & Young, K. (eds.) Sport and Gender in Canada. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp.17-128.
  37. Donnelly, P. & Petherick, L. (2004) Workers’ playtime?  Child labour at the extremes of the sporting spectrum. Sport in Society, 7(3), pp.301-321.
  38. Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C.H. & Sundgott-Borgen, J. (2004) Prevalence of Sexual Harassment among Norwegian Female Elite Athletes In relation to Sport Type. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 39(4), pp.373-386.
  39. Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C.H. & Walseth, K. (2002) Consequences of sexual harassment in sport for female athletes. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 8(2), pp.37-48.
  40. Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C.H. & Walseth, K. (2002) Coping with sexual harassment in sport: Experiences of elite female athletes. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 8(2), pp.16-36.
  41. Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C. & Walseth, K. (2007) Women athletes’ personal responses to sexual harassment in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(4), pp.419-433.
  42. Fasting, K. & Brackenridge, C.H. (2009) Coaches, sexual harassment and education. Sport, Education and Society, 14(1), pp.21-35.
  43. Gervis, M. & Dunn, N. (2004) The emotional abuse of elite child athletes by their coaches. Child Abuse Review, 13, pp.215-223.
  44. Hartill, M. (2005) Sport and the sexually abused male child. Sport, Education and Society, 10 (3), pp.287-304. DOI: 10.1080/13573320500254869
  45. Hartill, M. (2009) The Sexual Abuse of Boys in Organized Male Sports. Men and Masculinities, 12(2), pp.225-249. ISSN 1097-184X DOI 10.1177/1097184X07313361
  46. Hartill, M. (2010) The sexual subjection of boys in sport: Towards a theoretical account. In: Brackenridge, C. and Rhind, D. (Eds) Elite Child Athlete Welfare: International Perspectives. Brunel University Press, e-book, pp.85-92. ISBN 978-1902316833
  47. Hartill, M. (2012) “I was afraid of looking weak in his eyes”: Narratives of male-athleticism and the sexually-abused male child athlete. Psychology of Women Section Review, 14(2), pp.57-62.
  48. Hartill, M. (2013) ‘Child maltreatment and exploitation in sport’, in K. L. Keskinen, H. Haag & M. Talbot (eds.) Directory of Sport Science (6th ed.).  Berlin: International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE). ISBN: 0-99-006293-7 https://www.icsspe.org/bookshop/latest-publications-individual-publications/directory-sport-science-6th-edition.
  49. Hartill, M. (2013) Concealment of child sexual abuse in sports. Quest, 65, pp.241-254. DOI: 10.1080/00336297.2013.773532
  50. Hartill, M. (2014) ‘Suffering in Gratitude: sport and the sexually abused male child’, in J. Hargreaves and E. Anderson (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge, pp.426-434. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415522533/
  51. Hartill, M. (2014) Exploring narratives of boyhood sexual subjection in sport. Sociology of Sport Journal 31, pp.23-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2012-0216
  52. Hartill, M. & Lang, M. (2014) “I know people think I’m a complete pain in the neck”: An examination of the introduction of child protection and ‘safeguarding’ standards in English sport from the perspective of national governing body “Safeguarding” lead officers. Social Sciences, 3(4): 606-627. Special Issue: Contemporary Developments in Child Protection, guest editor Nigel Parton.
  53. Hartill, M., Lang, M. & Ashley, N. (2014) Child Protection and Safeguarding in Rugby Football League Research Project. Report for the Rugby Football League.
  54. Hartill, M. & O’Gorman, J. (2014) Evaluation in safeguarding and child protection in sport. In M. Lang & M. Hartill (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London: Routledge.
  55. Hartill, M. & Prescott, P. (2007) Serious business or ‘any other business’? Safeguarding and child protection policy in British Rugby League. Child Abuse Review, 16 (4): 237-251. ISSN 0952-9136 DOI 10.1002/car.990
  56. Hartill, M. & Lang, M. (2014) The Future for Safeguarding in Sport. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge.
  57. Hassall, C., Johnston, L. H., Bringer, J. D. & Brackenridge, C. H. (2002) Attitudes towards sexual harassment: Coach and athlete perceptions of ambiguous behaviours. Journal of Sport Pedagogy. 8 (2), pp.1-21.
  58. Independent Football Commission (IFC) (2005) Report on Child Protection in Football. Stockton-on-Tees, IFC.
  59. Kelly, S. & Waddington, I. (2006) ‘Abuse, intimidation and violence as aspects of managerial control in professional soccer in Britain and Ireland’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 41: 147-64.
  60. Kennedy, S. with Grainger, J. (2006). Why I didn’t say anything: The Sheldon Kennedy story. Toronto: Insomniac Press.
  61. Kerr, G. A. & Stirling, A. E. (2008) Child protection in sport: Implications of an athlete-centered philosophy. Quest, 60, pp.307-323.
  62. Kerr, G. & Stirling. A. E. (2012) Parents’ Reflections on their Child’s Experiences of Emotionally Abusive Coaching Practices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, (24), pp.191-206.
  63. Kirby, S.L., Greaves, L. & Hankivsky, O. (2000) The Dome of Silence: Sexual harassment and abuse in sport. London: Zed Books.
  64. Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (2015) (eds.) Safeguarding, child protection and abuse in sport: International perspectives on research, policy and practice. London: Routledge.
  65. Lang, M., Hartill, M. & Rulofs, B. (expected 2015) Child abuse in sport: from research to policy and prevention. In K. Green and A. Smith (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Youth Sport. London: Routledge.
  66. Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (2015) Safeguarding and Child Protection in Sport in England. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge, pp. 13- 22.
  67. Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (2015) What is Safeguarding in Sport? In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge.
  68. Lang, M. (2015) Touchy Subject: A Foucauldian Analysis of Coaches’ Perceptions of Adult-Child Touch in Youth Swimming. Sociology of Sport Journal. 3.
  69. Lang, M. & Light, R. (2010) Swimming Coaches’ Concerns with the Long Term Athlete Development Model. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching. pp.389-402.
  70. Lang, M. (2010) Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming. Sport, Education and Society. 15 (1), pp.19-37.
  71. Lang, M. (2010) A touchy subject? The (unintended) consequences of child protection regulations on youth swimming coaches. In: Brackenridge, C. H. & Rhind, D. (eds.) Elite Child Athlete Welfare: International Perspectives. Uxbridge, Brunel University Press. pp.127-137.
  72. Lang, M. (2010) Intensive Training in Youth Sport: A New Abuse of Power? In: Lang, M. & Vanhoutte, K. P. (eds.) Bullying and the Abuse of Power: From the Playground to International Relations. Freeland, Inter-Disciplinary Press. pp.57-64.
  73. Leahy, T., Pretty, G. & Tenenbaum, G. (2002) Prevalence of sexual abuse in organised competitive sport in Australia. In: Brackenridge, C. & Fasting, K. (eds.) Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport: International Research and Policy Perspectives. London, Whiting & Birch. pp.19-46.
  74. Lenskyj, H.J. (1992) Sexual harassment: Female athletes’ experiences and coaches’ responsibilities. Coaching Association of Canada, 12(6).
  75. Malkin, K., Johnston, L. H. & Brackenridge, C. (2000) A critical evaluation of training needs for child protection in sport. Managing Leisure, 5, pp.151-160.
  76. Martin, M. (2011) Don’t Be Mistaken—This Does Concern You! Qualitative Inquiry 17(9), pp.864-874.
  77. Martin, M. (2015) Child Protection and Welfare in Spanish Sport. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge.
  78. McCarthy, C. (2009). Deep deception: Ireland’s swimming scandals. Dublin: O’Brien Press.
  79. Messner, M. A. (2009) It’s all for the kids: Gender, families and youth sports. University of California Press.
  80. Myers, J. & Barrett, B. (2002) In at the Deep End: A New Insight for all Sports from Analysis of Child Abuse Within Swimming. London, NSPCC.
  81. Oliver, J. L., Lloyd, R. S. & Meyers, R. (2011) Training Elite Child Athletes: Promoting Welfare and Well-Being. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 33(4),  pp.73-79.
  82. Owton, H. & Sparkes, A. (2015) Sexual abuse and the grooming process in sport: Learning from Bella’s story. Sport, Education & Society.  DOI: 10.1080/13573322.2015.1063484
  83. Parent, S. & Bannon, J. (2012). Sexual abuse in sport: What about boys? Children and Youth Services Review, 34(2), pp.354-359.
  84. Parent, S. & El Hlimi, K. (2013) Athlete Protection in Quebec’s Sport System: Assessments, Problems, and Challenges. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 37, pp.284-296.
  85. Pinheiro, M. C. Pimenta, N., Resende, R. & Malcolm, D. (2014) Gymnastics and child abuse: An analysis of former international Portuguese female artistic gymnasts. Sport, Education and Society, 19 (4), pp.435-450.
  86. Prescott, P. & Hartill, M. (2007) Safeguarding children in sport: A view from Rugby League – the policy process, participative cultures and local relationships. Research, Policy and Planning: The Journal of the Social Services Research Group, 25(2/3), pp.129-141. ISSN 0264-519X
  87. Prescott, P. & Hartill, M. (2012) The impact of child protection on British Rugby League. In C. Brackenridge, T. Kay and D. Rhind (Eds) Sport, Children’s Rights and Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook on Global Issues and Local Programmes. London: Brunel University Press, e-book, pp.88-94.
  88. Rhind, D. & Brackenridge, C.H. (2014) (eds.) Researching and enhancing athlete welfare. London: Brunel University Press.
  89. Rhind, D., Cook, E. & Dorsch, K. (2013) Looking at youth hockey from a human rights perspective, Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, 16(3), pp.254-266.
  90. Robinson, L. (1998) Crossing the line: Violence and sexual assault in Canada’s national sport. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
  91. Rosenthal, C. (2004) Never let me go. Los Angeles: Red Hen Press.
  92. Rulofs, B. (2015) Child protection in German sport. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge, pp.49-57.
  93. Rulofs, B. (2015) Assessing the sociology of sport: On gender-based violence and child maltreatment in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport50(4-5), pp.580-584.
  94. Schipper-Van Veldhoven, N., Vertommen, T. & Vloet, L. (2015) (Sexual) intimidation in sport in the Netherlands. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge, pp.40-48.
  95. Sjöberg, P. (2011) What you didn’t see. Sweden: Norstedts.
  96. Toftegaard-Nielsen, J. (2001) The forbidden zone: Intimacy, sexual relations and misconduct in the relationship between coaches and athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36(2), pp.165-182.
  97. Toftegaard-Stoeckel, J. (2015) Safeguarding children and young people in Danish sport. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge, pp.23-30.
  98. Tomlinson, A. & Yorganci, I. (1997) Male coach-female athlete relations: gender and power relations in competitive sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, pp.134-55.
  99. Vertommen, T., Schipper-van Veldhoven, N., Hartill, M., Van Den Eede, F. (2013) Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: The NOC*NSF helpline. International Review for the Sociology of Sport.
  100. Vertommen, T., Tolleneer, J., Maebe, G. & De Martelaer, K. (2015) Preventing child maltreatment and transgressive behaviour in Flemish sport. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge, pp.31-39.
  101. Volkwein, K. A. E., Schnell, F. I., Sherwood, D. & Livezey, A. (1997) Sexual harassment in sport: Perceptions and experiences of American female student-athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32(2), pp.283-295.
  102. Volkwein-Caplan, K.A.E. and Sankaran, G. (2002) Sexual harassment in sport: Impact, issues and challenges. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer.
  103. Williams, Y. (2003) ‘Government-sponsored professional sports coaches and the need for better child protection’, Entertainment Law, 2: 55-84.
  104. Yorganci, I. (2004) Researching sport and sexual harassment: The ethics of covert participant observation and open methods. In: A. Tomlinson and S. Fleming (eds.) Ethics, sport and leisure: Crises and critiques (2nd ed.). Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sport, pp.151-162.
  105. Zurc, J., Rhind, D. & Lang, M. (2014) Safeguarding Children from Violence and Abuse in Slovenian Sport. In: Lang, M. & Hartill, M. (eds.) Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport: International Perspectives in Research, Policy and Practice. London, Routledge.
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